Listen to this playlist to put you in the mood!
Composer of the Month #3
February 25th, 2020
Each month, we celebrate the anniversary of a composer by highlighting their work and history, as well as giving you nice arrangements of some of the artist’s most iconic pieces that you can download directly into your Newzik library! This time, we discuss one of the greatest German pianists and composers of the romantic era: Felix Mendelssohn..
We have prepared a dedicated setlist for our Premium users that contains all the scoresthat we will study in this article, so if you are already a Newzik Premium subscriber, go ahead anddownload it right away. If you are a free user, it’s best you download the pieces you want fromour selection later in the article (mind the 15-file import limit of your free account). Subscribe to Newzik for unlimited import!
Finally, in case you’re not a Newzician yet, get Newzik for free on the App Store to download all our free sheetmusic from Mendelssohn!
A few words about Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn was born on February 3rd, 1809, in Hamburg, Germany. Both his parents were originally Jewish, and he was also the grandson of the famous Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. At two years old, Felix, his brother, his two sisters and his parents moved to Berlin, where he began taking piano lessons with Ludwig Berger as well as composition under the teaching of composer K.F. Zelter. In 1816, he broadened his lessons, studying under pianist Marie Bigot while he was staying in Paris, France with his family.
The young Felix Mendelssohn was quick to establish himself as a musical prodigy. During his childhood, he composed not just one but a handful of operas, as well as 11 symphonies. He made his public debut in Berlin in 1818, at just 9 years old.
The early works of Felix Mendelssohn
In 1819, Felix Mendelssohn joined the Singakademie – the academy of music – and began composing even more. In 1820 alone, he wrote a violin sonata, two piano sonatas, multiple songs, a cantata, a brief opera as well as a male quartet. A few years later, in 1826, he produced what would be remembered as one of his best works, and one of the most famous: Overture to a Midsummer Night's Dream.
The next year in Berlin, he presented his opera The Marriage of the Camacho – the only opera he wrote that was performed in public during his lifetime. It was also at that time that he began conducting at the Singakademie. In 1829, he conducted a performance of Bach's St. Matthew Passion, a tremendous success that opened him many doors, including that of the London Philharmonic Society where he was invited to conduct the same year. He visited England, spent some time also in Scotland, and was inspired to start composing his Symphony No. 3. Famously enough, it will take him more than 10 years to finish this work, also known as the "Scottish Symphony".
Even though his first occupation was conducting, Mendelssohn was always a prolific composer nonetheless. In 1830, he wrote the Reformation Symphony, starting a three-year European tour shortly after. During that time, he published his first book of songs, entitled Songs without Words (1832). In 1835, a sign of his growing fame, Mendelssohn was granted an illustrious role: conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipzig.
The later works
Two years later, in 1837, Mendelssohn composed his Piano Concerto No. 2 in D Minor, and also got married in Frankfurt to Cécile Jeanrenaud, a clergyman's daughter who was quite younger than he was, getting engaged at 16. From 1838 to 1844, he worked continuously on what probably constitutes his best work piece of music ever, Violin Concerto in E Minor.
He also founded the Leipzig Conservatory of Music and became its director, thus establishing Leipzig as the heart of the musical culture of Germany. After finishing Violin Concerto in E Minor, Mendelssohn conducted a string of concerts for the Philharmonic. In 1846 he presented his newly written Elijah at the Birmingham Festival.
In May 1847, a tragic event deeply affected Felix Mendelssohn: the death of Fanny, his sister, who was also his muse. Her death left him so devastated that he became ill. His health, already compromised by intense career, deteriorated quickly. Only six months later, on November 4, 1847, Felix Mendelssohn died of a ruptured blood vessel in Leipzig, Germany, after a short stay in Switzerland. Despite his early age when he died – he was only 38 years old – Felix Mendelssohn managed to establish himself as one of the most important composers of the Romantic, and definitely one of the most significant ones of 19th century Germany. One can only wonder what marvelous melodies he could have composed had him stayed alive a bit longer. He himself hoped that he would keep on composing in the afterlife: Mendelssohn had once described death, in a letter to a stranger:
"Death is a place where it is to be hoped there is still music, but no more sorrow or partings."
And now, the music!
We selected some of our favorite pieces by Fauré and spent a little bit of time analyzing them. We also offer you free sheet music for all these works, so you can practice your instrument with Newzik!
Violin Concerto in E minor
In 1838, Mendelssohn wrote in a letter to violinist Ferdinand David: "I would like to write a concerto for you next winter. I have an idea for an opening in E minor, which leaves me restless." Once achieved in 1844, Mendelssohn's concerto was a tremendous success.
Up to this day, it is one of the most iconic pieces ever written by Mendelssohn, and a classic to violinists all around the world. If the structure of this work isn't particularly innovative – a rapid movement, followed by slower then, then a rapid one again – it brings new ideas that set it apart the classical period that precedented, and helps establishing the new codes of the Romantic era. Instead of introducing the theme of the piece by an orchestra tutti, the solo start immediately, after only a few arpeggios. The solo part demands a great deal of virtuosity, and is filled with complex playing techniques such as fast double strings or frenetic ricochets before the cadences. Also, at the end of the first movement, the concerto continues without a break, which was quite innovative at the time.
Challenge yourself with this piano reduction of the concerto, which also contains the solo part as an independent voice.
If you play a string instrument, you might prefer to get your own part of this full string arrangement. Each part comes with the full score so you can follow the rest of the music.
Octet in E-flat major, Op.20
Presented in an original form, this piece was composed by Mendelssohn when he was only 16 years old, in 1825, and the composer rewrote bits of it in 1832. At such a young age, he already shows obvious writing skills, and the piece is filled with particularly contrasted nuances. The octet was initially composed for a string ensemble comprised of 4 violins, 2 violas and 2 cellos, but a double bass can be heard on several recordings. This work follows the typical form of a sonata, with 4 movements. The first one has the annotation: "allegro moderato ma con fuoco": "with fire". This "fire" is represented by the dynamic violin arpeggios, accompanied by syncopated rhythms and offbeats. Many staccatos and tremolos also add to the agitated ambiance of the tune.
Lieder Ohne Worte – Op.19 No.6
The "Songs without Words" (Lieder ohne Worte) are a collection of short piano pieces composed by Mendelssohn at various moments of his life. Some of them were even published after his death, until 1868. The Opus 19 is a collection of pieces composed between 1829 and 1830, and published this year. The last one of these pieces is entitled "Venetian Gondola Song" and is probably the most famous one of this collection. It is a barcarole which is constructed around a ternary beat in 6/8, a nagging rhythm which evokes the slow movement of a gondola, at a slow tempo. The left hand uses quavers to create a balancing motion while the right hand plays a rhythmically instable theme full of passing notes that give this piece a particularly melancholic feeling.
Lieder Ohne Worte – Op.30 No.6
The Opus 30 of the Songs without Words was composed between 1833 and 1834, and is another take on a Venetian gondola song. This one is faster though, and has a much more dramatic dimension than the Op.19 No.6, yet also more nostalgic and soft at times. Heavy sforzandi alternate with trills over several measures, giving the tune a furiously romantic character.
We hope you liked this Composer of the Month and that you will have a great time practicing these tunes! Don’t hesitate to tell us in the comments about your personal favorite pieces from Felix Mendelssohn. See you next month for another episode of Composer of the Month
Disclaimer: all the scores provided in this article were found online and all listed as either Public Domain or Creative Commons and encouraged to be shared freely by their creators. If you want to learn more about the best online sources for legally getting sheet music, go ahead and read this article. Also, if despite our best effort to respect the will of the original creators, you are one of these creators and disagree with our use of your work, please contact us.